Biotechnology Letters is the world leading rapid-publication primary journal dedicated to biotechnology as a whole. Its focus is on topics relating to actual or potential applications of biological reactions affected by microbial, plant or animal cells and biocatalysts derived from them. Coverage includes all relevant aspects of genetics and cell biochemistry, of process and reactor design, of pre- and post-treatment procedures, and of manufacturing or service operations. The aim of the editors is to publish useful and informative results that will be of value to other workers in related fields. The emphasis is on novelty and immediacy.